IIC.  ENERGY

Concept

Demonstrations

Cryogens

Cryogens are ultra-cold refrigerants used by chemists to remove heat from other substances; common cryogens are liquid nitrogen and liquid helium

 

            Liquid Nitrogen Ice Cream

Catalysts

Catalysts are substances which speed the formation of products in a chemical reaction but which are themselves not changed

 

 

            Preparation of Oxygen Gas from Bleach

 

Energy of Activation

Energy of activation is the minimal energy which must be present for a chemical reaction to occur

 

 

            Reaction of Zinc and Sulfur

 

Endothermic Reactions

Endothermic reactions are chemical reactions which require heating to cause them to occur

            

            Formation of a Copper Mirror

 

Entropy

Entropy is a measure of the order or disorder of any system;  the greater the entropy the greater the disorder, and vice versa

 

 

            Boiling at Reduced Pressure

 

Exothermic Reactions

Exothermic reactions are chemical reactions which liberate heat energy when they occur

            

            Genie in a Bottle

            The Thermite Process

 

Heats of Reactions

Heats of reaction are the various amounts of energy either liberated or absorbed when a change occurs

 

            

             Decomposition of Ammonium Dichromate

 

Photoemission

Photoemission is the emission of light from a substance

 

 

            Oxidation of Phosphorus

 

Relative Stability

Relative stability norms the energy of any substance against the energy of any other substance; the energy of any given substance is said to be relative to that of another substance

 

 

            Reaction of Magnesium with Carbon Dioxide

            Oxidation of Phosphorus

 

Thermodynamics

Thermodynamics is the branch of science that deals with energy;  in chemistry, thermodynamics deals with energy changes, especially between reactants and products of chemical reactions

 

            Liquid Nitrogen Ice Cream