IIB.  METHODS OF PURIFICATION

Concept

Demonstrations

Crystallization

Crystallization is the process by which dispersed ions or molecules in solution come to form highly ordered assemblies known as crystals

 

            

            Crystallization of a Supersaturated Solution

 

Distillation

Distillation is the conversion of a liquid to a vapor with its subsequent conversion back to liquid by condensation; since the impurities are left behind distillation is a means of purification

 

            

            Purification of a Liquid by Distillation

 

Extraction

Extraction is the removal of a substance from a mixture by the use of a solvent in which the substance is soluble

 

 

            Soxhlet Extraction of Coffee

 

Purification of Liquids

Purification of liquids is a common process carried out on solutions of liquids which separates them into their individual components

 

 

            Purification of a Liquid by Distillation