IIA.  GENERAL PHYSICAL PHENOMENA

Concept

Demonstrations

Atmospheric Pressure

The sum total of the gases exerting force on the surface of earth at a given time and place is the atmospheric pressure; it varies with altitude and weather 

 

            

            Boiling at Reduced Pressure

            Collapsing Can

 

Denaturation

Denaturation is the physical process whereby large molecules such as proteins have their three dimensional structures disrupted; denaturation is usually a physical change which may sometimes be reversible

            Making Plastic from Protein
Electricity, Electrodes, and Electrolytes

Electricity is the flow of electrons; Electrodes include the source and the destination of electrons; electrolytes are charged substances whose presence is required for liquids to be electrically conducting

 

            

            Electrolytes, Conductors of Electricity 

 

Flash Point

Flash point is the lowest temperature at which a substance heated under standard conditions gives off enough vapor to ignite with flame

 

            

            Combustion of Nitrocellulose

 

Gases

Gases are substances in the gaseous state; gases have their particles separated from each other

            

            Collapsing Can

            Elephants' Toothpaste

            Hydrogen Explosions

            Hydrogen Gas from the Reaction of Magnesium Metal with Acid

            Preparation of Oxygen Gas from Bleach

 

Hydrated Ions

Hydrated ions are ions which are kept separated from each other by water of hydration surrounding them

 

 

            Solution Equilibrium

 

Intermolecular Attractions

Intermolecular attractions are what keep the particles of any substance together 

 

            

            Boiling Liquid at a Reduced Pressure

            Liquid Carbon Dioxide

 

Physical Changes

Physical changes are transformations which do not result in the formation of a new substance

 

            

            Liquid Carbon Dioxide

 

Partial Vacuum

A partial vacuum has a decreased number of particles in the gaseous state; a complete vacuum is characterized by the absence of any particles

            

            Ammonia Fountain

            Why Water Boils

            Solution Equilibrium

 

Reaction Kinetics

Reaction kinetics describe how fast a reaction will occur

            

            Instant Fire

            Oxidation of Phosphorus

 

Reduced Pressure

Reduced pressure refers to the state of a partial vacuum

 

            Boiling at Reduced Pressure

            Instant Fire

            Oxidation of Phosphorus

 

Solubility

Solubility of a substance refers to how much of the substance will dissolve under given conditions in a given solvent

            

            Carbon Dioxide from Respiration

            Precipitate Formation:  Cobalt(II)Hydroxide

            Precipitate Formation: Cobalt(III)Saccharate Hexahydrate

 

Solutions of Salts

Solutions of salts are formed by dissolving ionic substances in suitable solvents

 

            

            Crystallization of a Supersaturated Solution

 

Supersaturation

Supersaturation is the situation which occurs when a cool solution contains more solute than it does when in equilibrium with solid

 

            

            Crystallization of a Supersaturated Solution

 

Triple Point

Triple point is the temperature at which the liquid, vapor, and solid of a substance are all in equilibrium

 

            

            Liquid Carbon Dioxide

 

Vapor

Vapor is the partially condensed gaseous form of any substance

 

            

            Genie in a Bottle

 

Vapor Pressure

Vapor pressure is the pressure exerted by a vapor above a substance releasing the vapor

 

 

            Boiling Liquid at a Reduced Pressure

 

Volume of a Gas

The volume of a gas is the space occupied by the gas including the empty space between the gas particles themselves; the volume of a gas depends on the temperature and pressure of the gas

 

 

            Hydrogen Gas from the Reaction of Magnesium Metal with Acid

            Crystallization of a Supersaturated Solution

            Precipitate Formation:  Lead(II)Iodide