Atmospheric Pressure

The sum total of the gases exerting force on the surface of earth at a given time and place is the atmospheric pressure; it varies with altitude and weather 



            Boiling at Reduced Pressure

            Collapsing Can



Denaturation is the physical process whereby large molecules such as proteins have their three dimensional structures disrupted; denaturation is usually a physical change which may sometimes be reversible

            Making Plastic from Protein
Electricity, Electrodes, and Electrolytes

Electricity is the flow of electrons; Electrodes include the source and the destination of electrons; electrolytes are charged substances whose presence is required for liquids to be electrically conducting



            Electrolytes, Conductors of Electricity 


Flash Point

Flash point is the lowest temperature at which a substance heated under standard conditions gives off enough vapor to ignite with flame



            Combustion of Nitrocellulose



Gases are substances in the gaseous state; gases have their particles separated from each other


            Collapsing Can

            Elephants' Toothpaste

            Hydrogen Explosions

            Hydrogen Gas from the Reaction of Magnesium Metal with Acid

            Preparation of Oxygen Gas from Bleach


Hydrated Ions

Hydrated ions are ions which are kept separated from each other by water of hydration surrounding them



            Solution Equilibrium


Intermolecular Attractions

Intermolecular attractions are what keep the particles of any substance together 



            Boiling Liquid at a Reduced Pressure

            Liquid Carbon Dioxide


Physical Changes

Physical changes are transformations which do not result in the formation of a new substance



            Liquid Carbon Dioxide


Partial Vacuum

A partial vacuum has a decreased number of particles in the gaseous state; a complete vacuum is characterized by the absence of any particles


            Ammonia Fountain

            Why Water Boils

            Solution Equilibrium


Reaction Kinetics

Reaction kinetics describe how fast a reaction will occur


            Instant Fire

            Oxidation of Phosphorus


Reduced Pressure

Reduced pressure refers to the state of a partial vacuum


            Boiling at Reduced Pressure

            Instant Fire

            Oxidation of Phosphorus



Solubility of a substance refers to how much of the substance will dissolve under given conditions in a given solvent


            Carbon Dioxide from Respiration

            Precipitate Formation:  Cobalt(II)Hydroxide

            Precipitate Formation: Cobalt(III)Saccharate Hexahydrate


Solutions of Salts

Solutions of salts are formed by dissolving ionic substances in suitable solvents



            Crystallization of a Supersaturated Solution



Supersaturation is the situation which occurs when a cool solution contains more solute than it does when in equilibrium with solid



            Crystallization of a Supersaturated Solution


Triple Point

Triple point is the temperature at which the liquid, vapor, and solid of a substance are all in equilibrium



            Liquid Carbon Dioxide



Vapor is the partially condensed gaseous form of any substance



            Genie in a Bottle


Vapor Pressure

Vapor pressure is the pressure exerted by a vapor above a substance releasing the vapor



            Boiling Liquid at a Reduced Pressure


Volume of a Gas

The volume of a gas is the space occupied by the gas including the empty space between the gas particles themselves; the volume of a gas depends on the temperature and pressure of the gas



            Hydrogen Gas from the Reaction of Magnesium Metal with Acid

            Crystallization of a Supersaturated Solution

            Precipitate Formation:  Lead(II)Iodide