IIIB.  SOLUTION CHEMISTRY

Concept

Demonstrations

Bleach

Commercial bleach is an aqueous (water) solution of calcium hypochlorite used to oxidize stains on cloth

 

            

            Preparation of Chlorine Gas from Bleach

 

Indicators

Indicators are dyes which are sensitive to protons from acids and which change color in their presence or absence; indicators usually undergo reversible color changes

            

            Ammonia Fountain

            Amphoteric Behavior of Aluminum

            Carbon Dioxide from Respiration

 

Peroxides

Peroxides are chemicals characterized by the presence of an oxygen-oxygen bond, such as found in hydrogen peroxide and benzoyl peroxide

            

            Elephants' Toothpaste

 

pH

pH is a measure of the concentration of protons in a solution; protons are hydrogen cations

            

            Amphoteric Behavior of Aluminum

            Carbon Dioxide from Respiration

 

Precipitates

Precipitates are solids usually of crystalline composition which are only partially soluble in solvents; a precipitate will normally "fall" to the bottom of a reaction vessel as it forms, hence the word

            

            Amphoteric Behavior of Aluminum

            Precipitate Formation:  Cobalt(II)Hydroxide

            Precipitate Formation: Cobalt(III)Saccharate Hexahydrate

            Precipitate Formation:  Lead(II)Iodide

            Amphoteric Behavior of Aluminum

            Carbon Dioxide from Respiration

 

Solution Chemistry

Solution chemistry includes all chemical reactions that take place in the presence of a suitable solvent

 

            

            Precipitate Formation:  Cobalt(II)Hydroxide