IA.  TYPES OF COMPOUNDS

Concept

Demonstrations

Acids

An acid is a substance that loses protons to other substances known as bases

 

            

            Formation of Hydrogen Gas from Acids

 

Bases

Bases can react with other substances known as "acids" by forming a new bond with the proton that originally belonged to the acid

 

            

            Reaction of Sodium and Water

 

Biological Molecules

Biological molecules are those compounds common to most all living systems;  biological molecules include carbohydrates (mono- and polysaccharides), proteins, lipids (fats and oils), and nucleic acids

            

            Liquid Nitrogen Ice Cream

               

            Making Plastic from Protein

        

 

Inorganic Compounds

Inorganic compounds are compounds comprised primarily of elements other than carbon; there are approximately one million inorganic compounds

 

            Formation of a Copper Mirror

            Oxidation of an Organic Compound

 

Organic Compounds

Organic compounds are compounds comprised primarily of carbon in addition to other elemests;  there are approximately 18 million organic compounds

            

            Instant Fire

            Oxidation of an Organic Compound

            Reaction of Acetylene and Chlorine Gases

 

Covalent Compounds

Covalent compounds contain atoms joined by covalent bonds which are paired electrons

 

        

            Reaction of White Phosphorus and Chlorine

 

Ionic Compounds

Ionic compounds are formed of positive cations and negative anions which are held together simply by the rule "unlike charges attract"

 

            

             Reaction of Zinc and Iodine

 

Metals

Metals are typified by being shiny, malleable, ductile, conductors of electricity and are found on the left side of the Periodic Table

 

 

            Reaction of Sodium and Water

 

Monomers

Monomers are the building blocks for polymers

 

            Synthesis of Nylon
Polymers

Polymers are gigantic molecules formed of individual starting molecules  known as monomers

            

            Combustion of Nitrocellulose

            Making Plastic from Protein

            Synthesis of Nylon