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IIIA.  CLASSIFICATION OF CHEMICAL REACTIONS

Concept

Demonstrations

Combination Reactions

Combination reactions begin with two or more substances and when the reaction is complete form a single product substance

            

            Hydrogen Explosions

            Magnesium Burning

            Oxidation of Phosphorus

            Reaction of White Phosphorus and  Chlorine

            Reaction of Zinc and Iodine

            Reaction of Zinc and Sulfur

 

Combustion Reactions

Combustion reactions are reactions that produce light and heat as energy products in addition to new chemical substances

 

            

            Magnesium Burning

            Reaction of Acetylene and Chlorine Gases

 

Decomposition Reactions

Decomposition reactions begin with a single substance and form two or more new product substances

            

            Decomposition of Ammonium Dichromate

            Elephants' Toothpaste

            Explosive Decomposition                

            Genie in a Bottle

            Preparation of Oxygen Gas from Bleach

 

Disproportionation Reactions

Disproportionation reactions begin with an element in one oxidation state but produce products in which that element appears in two different oxidation states (the starting element has been both oxidized and reduced)

 

            

            Reaction of Phosphorus with Sodium Hydroxide

 

Double Replacement Reactions

Double replacement reactions are reactions in which the elements or ions of both reactants change partners to form two new products

 

            

            Precipitate Formation:  Cobalt(II)Hydroxide

            Precipitate Formation: Cobalt(III)Saccharate Hexahydrate

            Precipitate Formation:  Lead(II)Iodide

 

Equilibrium Reactions

Equilibrium reactions are chemical reactions in which all reactants and products are present simultaneously

 

            

            Ammonia Fountain

 

Nitration

Nitration is a chemical reaction in which a substance undergoes the introduction of a nitro group, --NO2

 

            

            Combustion of Nitrocellulose

 

Photochemical Reactions

Photochemical reactions rely on light energy for chemical transformations to occur

 

            

            Blueprint Paper

 

Photoreduction Reactions

Photoreduction reactions are chemical reactions in which a substance has gained electrons, that is, been reduced

 

            

            Blueprint Paper

 

Polymer Modification

Polymer modification is a method by which polymers are converted to structurally modified molecules having different properties than the starting polymer

 

            

            Combustion of Nitrocellulose

 

Redox Reactions

Redox reactions are chemical reactions in which one substance loses electrons (is oxidized) and another substance simultaneously gains electrons (is reduced); "redox" is a contraction of the words "reduction-oxidation"

            

            Decomposition of Ammonium Dichromate

            Explosive Decomposition

            Formation of a Copper Mirror

            Formation of a Silver Mirror

            Hydrogen Gas from the Reaction of Magnesium Metal with Acid

            Preparation of Chlorine Gas from Bleach

            Reaction of Zinc and Iodine

            Reaction of Zinc and Sulfur

            The Thermite Process

 

Respiration

Respiration is the sum total of biological oxidation processes which results in the oxidation of carbon to carbon dioxide

 

            

            Carbon Dioxide from Respiration

 

Reversible Chemical Reactions

Reversible chemical reactions are those in which reactants and products are in equilibrium

 

            

            Solution Equilibrium

 

Selective Organic Reactions

Selective organic reactions are chemical reactions which "select" only a portion of an organic starting molecule for transformation

 

            

            Formation of a Silver Mirror

 

Spontaneous Combustion

Spontaneous combustion refers to the apparently spontaneous production of heat and light by a chemical reaction

 

            

            Reaction of Phosphorus with Sodium Hydroxide

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

          1999, South Dakota Board of Regents.  All rights reserved.

          Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering 

          South Dakota School of Mines and Technology

          Rapid City, SD  57701

          Comments to:  dboyles@silver.sdsmt.edu

         Please use the chemical discussion area for all chemically-related questions.